Determination of clusters

In classical business sense the cluster is the group of affiliates (the companies, corporations, universities, banks and so forth), concentrated in some territory: the product suppliers, utilities and specialized services; infrastructures; scientific research institutions; universities and other organizations, mutually supportive each other and increasing competitive advantages of separate companies and a cluster in general.

 The cluster possesses properties of the mutual competition and cooperation of its participants, formation of region unique competences, formation of business and organization concentration in a certain territory. But not all clusters, reviewed in this research, meet such conditions. Often the affiliated enterprises are located in the neighboring districts, remote from one another.

Under development of entrepreneurship promotion regional cards the sectors, entering various clusters, have been reviewed. Distribution of clusters by sectors has been complied on the basis of the European cluster observatory database, adapted for the Kazakhstan economy.

For the analysis of the existing clusters three indicators were used:

1) Localization of clusters: similarly to location quotient should be more than 1;

2) The cluster factor, indicating rates of cluster change relating national economy growth rates in general, should be more than 0;

3) The regional factor, indicating rates of cluster change in the area of other clusters in this area, should be larger than average value by areas (it is counted separately).

All three indicators, except localization, were calculated on the basis of historical data GVA (gross value added) from 1998 to 2014 region-wise of Kazakhstan with specification to CCEA (common classifier of economic activity)-4. The location quotient was calculated on the basis of data of 2014.

The main criterions for selection of clusters, significant for area, are: the high location quotient – is more than 1, high values of quotient in a regional factor – above the average in Kazakhstan, positiveness of cluster factor indicator and presence of competitive mass of the enterprises in the region.

If value of a cluster factor is less than 0, so rates of its growth less, than growth rates of Kazakhstan economy in general, so there is negative influence of some external (concerning area) factors, slowing down its development not only in this specific area, but also in general across Kazakhstan.

If value of a regional factor small (it is less than average over republic), then the cluster is negatively influenced by internal factors (barriers) in the area, and in comparison with similar clusters in other areas the reviewed cluster grows more slowly.

Total of these criterions distributes clusters on formed and forming in individual area. The formed clusters, which are rather successful and developed, are characterized by the greatest contribution of GVA (gross value added) to GRP (gross regional product) and high localization in the region1.

 For the forming clusters the smallest share of GVA (gross value added) to GRP (gross regional product), but rather high concentration in the region is characteristic.

The availability of factors for development of this or that cluster in the area, such as natural and human resources, an advantageous geographical position, availability of the markets is important.

From the general list of clusters the outstanding interest in this research is so-called "the cluster-drivers" or "formed clusters". Development of such clusters becomes a push for development of the accompanying economy sectors or kinds of activity.

By investigating each cluster, it is possible to allocate kinds of activity, in which there is no approved production, but there are factors for its development. Similar kinds of activity represent potential kinds of activity for development of entrepreneurship.

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